Romania – Fly to Timişoara

Timişoara

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Timișoara
—  City  —

Victory Square


Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Little Vienna
Coordinates: 45°45′35″N 21°13′48″ECoordinates: 45°45′35″N 21°13′48″E
Country  Romania
County Timiș County
Status County Capital
Government
 - Mayor Gheorghe Ciuhandu(CDNPP)
Area
 - City 129.2 km2 (49.9 sq mi)
 - Metro 1,070.4 km2 (413.3 sq mi)
Elevation 90 m (295 ft)
Population (est. 2010)
 - City 311,586
 - Density 2,411.7/km2 (6,246.3/sq mi)
 - Metro 367,347
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Mailbox code 300030
Tel. code 02 56
Vehicle registration TM
Website primariatm.ro

Timișoara (Romanian pronunciation: [timiˈʃo̯ara] ( listen); German: Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar, Hungarian: Temesvár,Serbian: Темишвар/Temišvar, Turkish: Temeşvar) is the capital city of Timiș County, in western Romania. One of the largest Romanian cities, with an estimated population of 311,586 inhabitants (2010), and considered the informal capital city of the historical region of Banat, Timișoara is the main social, economic and cultural center in the western part of the country.

Geography

Timișoara lies at an altitude of 95 m on the southeast edge of the Banat plain, part of the great Panonia plain. The rich black soil and relatively low water table make this a fertile agricultural region.

Due to the hydrography projects undertaken in the 18th century, the city no longer lies on the Timiș River, but on the Bega canal. This is a relatively active seismic area, and earthquakes up to 6 on the Richter scale have been recorded.

History

Timișoara was first mentioned as a place in either 1212 or 1266. The territory later to be known as Banat was conquered and annexed by theKingdom of Hungary in 1030. Timișoara grew considerably during the reign of Charles I, who, upon his visit here in 1307, ordered the construction of a royal palace. Timișoara’s importance also grew thanks to its strategic location, which facilitated control over the Banat plain. John Hunyadiestablished a permanent military encampment here, and moved here together with his family. In 1552, Ahmed Pasha conquered the city with a 16,000 Ottomans and transformed it into a capital city in the region. The local military commander, Stefan Losonczy, was captured and beheaded on July 27, 1552 after resisting the Ottoman invasion with just over 2,300 men.

Timișoara 1656 Nicolas Sanson map

Timișoara remained under Ottoman rule for nearly 160 years, controlled directly by the Sultan and enjoying a special status, similar to other cities in the region such as Budapest and Belgrade. During this period, Timișoara was home to a large Islamiccommunity and produced famous historical figures such as Osman Aga of Temesvar, until Prince Eugene of Savoyconquered it in 1716. Subsequently, the city came under Austrian rule, and it remained so until the early 20th century except Ottoman occupation between 1788-1789 during Ottoman-Hapsburg war. During this time, Timișoara evolved from a strategic fortress to an economic and industrial center: numerous factories were built, electric illumination and public transport were introduced, and railroad connections were established. The city was defortified, and several major road arteries were built to connect the suburbs with the city center, paving the way for further expansion of the city limits.

It was the first mainland European city to be lit by electric street lamps in 1884. It was also the second European and the first city in what is now Romania with horse drawn trams in 1867. Gustave Eiffel, the creator of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, drew the projects of one of Timișoara’s footbridges over the Bega.

On October 31, 1918, local military and political elites establish the “Banat National Council”, together with representatives of the region’s main ethnic groups: Hungarians, Romanians, Serbs and Germans. In the aftermath of World War I, the Banat region was divided between the Kingdom of Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and Timișoara came under Romanian administration after Serbian occupation between 1918-1919. In 1920, King Ferdinand I awarded Timișoara the status of a University Center, and the interwar years saw continuous economic and cultural development. A number of anti-fascist and anti-revisionist demonstrations also took place during this time.

During World War II, Timișoara suffered damage from both Allied and Axis bombing raids, especially during the second half of 1944. On August 23, 1944, Romania, which until then was a member of the Axis, declared war on Nazi Germany and joined the Allies. Surprised, the local Wehrmacht garrison surrendered without a fight, and German and Hungarian troops attempted to take the city by force throughout September, without success.

After the war, the People’s Republic of Romania was proclaimed, and Timișoara underwent Sovietization and later, systematization. The city’s population tripled between 1948 and 1992. In December 1989, Timișoara witnessed a series of mass street protests by Romanians, Hungarians and Serbs, in what was to become the Romanian Revolution of 1989.

Demographics

Historical population of Timișoara
Year Population  %±
1787 9,479
1847 18,103 91%
1869 32,725 80.7%
1900 53,033[3] 62%
1912 census 72,555 36.8%
1930 census 91,451 26%
1948 census 111,987 22.4%
1956 census 142,257 27%
1966 census 174,243 22.4%
1977 census 266,353 52.8%
1992 census 334,115 25.4%
2002 census 317,660 −4.9%
2007 estimate 307,347[4] −3.2%

Center of Timișoara

According to the last Romanian census, from 2002, there were 317,660 people living within the city of Timișoara, making it the fourth most populous city in Romania.

Of this population, 85.52% are ethnic Romanians, while 7.64% are Hungarians, 2.25% Germans, 1.98% Serbs, 0.96% ethnic Roma, 0.38% Bulgarians, 0.23% Ukrainians, 0.17% Slovaks, 0.11% Jews and 0.76% others.

As of 2010, Timișoara has an estimated population of 311,428. 14.2% of the population are under 15 years of age, 4.0% are over 75. The Timișoara metropolitan area has a population of 365,545.

The Ukrainian community is currently growing, partly due to the presence of Ukrainian language educational facilities. In recent years, local investment by Italian companies has spurred the creation of an Italian community, even leading to calls for an Italian Cultural Center.

Since 1990, Timișoara saw a slight population decline owing to migration and a drop in birthrates. Notably, the Hungarian and German communities experienced significant decline, with the latter being reduced by half between 1992 and 2002.

Economy

Timișoara has been an important economic center since the 18th century when the Habsburg administration was installed. Due to Austrian colonization, ethnic and religious diversity and innovative laws, the economy began to develop. The technicians and craftsmen that settled in the city established guilds and helped develop the city’s economy. Notably, in 1717, Timișoara became host to the region’s first beer factory.

During the Industrial Revolution, numerous modern innovations were introduced. It was the first city in the monarchy with street illumination, and the first city on mainland Europe illuminated by electric light. The Bega river was also channelled during this time. It was the first navigable canal on current Romanian territory. This way, Timișoara had contact with Europe, and even with the rest of the world through the Black Sea, leading to the local development of commercialism.

CBC Timișoara

Iulius Mall Timișoara

In the 19th century, the railway system of the Hungarian Kingdom reached Temesvár. Timișoara was the first city in the country with international routeseconomic boom as the amount of foreign investment, especially in high-tech sectors, has risen. In terms of living standards, Timișoara ranks fourth nationwide. In an article in late 2005, French magazine L’Expansion called Timișoara Romania’s economic showcase, and referred to the increased number of foreign investments as a “second revolution”.

Apart from domestic local investment, there has been significant foreign investment from the European Union, particularly from Germany and Italy.Continental AG has produced tires since opening a plant in 2000. The Linde Group produces technical gases, and a part of the wiring moulds for BMWand Audi vehicles are produced by the company Dräxlmaier Group locally. Also, Swiss company FM Logistic, already present in Timiș County for Nestlé,P&G and in Bucharest for Cora, L’Oréal, Sanofi Aventis and Yves Rocher, and for companies like PROFI Rom Foods, BIC, Kraft Foods or SCA Packaging- offering them domestic transport services and international transport services for Bricostore, Arctic, Danone, Unilever or Contitech, the growth of FM Logistic in Romania and in Dudești through its 1st own warehouse in Romania (Dudeștii Noi gives FM the opportunity). Nestlé produces waffles here.

The USA company Flextronics maintains a workplace in the west of the city for the production of mobile telephony and government inspection department devices. In 2009, the company laid off 640 workers. The American company Procter & Gamble manufactures washing and cleaning agents in Timișoara.Smithfield Foods - the world’s largest pork processor and hog producer – has two subsidiaries in Timișoara and Timiș County: Smithfield Ferme and Smithfield Prod.

Like most of Romania, Timișoara experienced economic slowdown in 2009, due to the global economic downturn.

Transport

Tramway and trolleybus routes

Timișoara’s public transport network consists of 10 tram lines, 8 trolleybus lines and 20 bus lines, of which 5 are metropolitan lines and 6 are express lines. It is operated by Regia Autonomă de Transport Timișoara (RATT), an autonomous corporation of the City Hall. The city is served by Romania’s third busiest airport, Traian Vuia International Airport, which is the hub of the Romania’s second-largest airline, Carpatair. The city is connected to a series of major European and domestic destinations. Timișoara is a major railway centre and is connected to all other major Romanian cities, as well as local destinations, through the national CFR network.

Cityscape

The tallest building, when completed in 2011, will be the Tender Financial Center, at 180 meters tall. The tallest building currently is the Fructus Tower, at 65 meters. Another proposed building, the Timișoara High Tower, when completed, will have a height of 138 meters, but it is not scheduled to open until 2012.

Climate

Main article: Climate of Romania
Climate Data for Timișoara, Romania
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.4
(63.3)
20.5
(68.9)
28.2
(82.8)
32.0
(89.6)
34.5
(94.1)
38.4
(101.1)
40.1
(104.2)
41.0
(105.8)
39.7
(103.5)
33.8
(92.8)
27.1
(80.8)
20.2
(68.4)
41.0
(105.8)
Average high °C (°F) 2
(36)
5
(41)
11
(52)
18
(64)
23
(73)
26
(79)
28
(82)
28
(82)
25
(77)
18
(64)
11
(52)
4
(39)
17
Daily mean °C (°F) −1
(30)
1
(34)
5
(41)
11
(52)
16
(61)
19
(66)
21
(70)
21
(70)
18
(64)
12
(54)
6
(43)
1
(34)
11
Average low °C (°F) −5
(23)
−3
(27)
0
(32)
5
(41)
10
(50)
13
(55)
15
(59)
14
(57)
11
(52)
6
(43)
2
(36)
−1
(30)
5
Record low °C (°F) −35.3
(−31.5)
−29.2
(−20.6)
−20
(−4.0)
−5.2
(22.6)
−5
(23.0)
2.2
(36.0)
5.9
(42.6)
5.0
(41.0)
−1.9
(28.6)
−6.8
(19.8)
−15.4
(4.3)
−24.8
(−12.6)
−35.3
(−31.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 47
(1.85)
44
(1.73)
46
(1.81)
56
(2.2)
71
(2.8)
91
(3.58)
67
(2.64)
53
(2.09)
51
(2.01)
46
(1.81)
57
(2.24)
59
(2.32)
688
(27.09)
% humidity 91 87 81 80 77 79 74 75 76 85 92 89 82
Avg. precipitation days 12 10 8 10 13 16 12 11 10 9 11 11 145
Avg. rainy days 2 3 7 10 13 16 12 11 10 9 7 4 104
Avg. snowy days 10 8.5 3 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 3 7.3 32
Sunshine hours 62 85 155 180 210 240 280 279 210 155 85 60 2,001
[citation needed]
  • Highest Recorded Temperature: 41.0 °C (106 °F)
  • Lowest Recorded Temperature: −35.3 °C (−32 °F)
  • Snow stays on the grounds 50 days a year on average
  • Warmest Month: July
  • Coolest Month: January
  • Highest Precipitation: June: 91.0 mm(3.189 in)
  • Lowest Precipitation: February: 44.5 mm(1.437 in)

The climate which defines Timișoara city is the temperate continental moderate climate which characterizes the Southern-Eastern part of The Pannonian Basin. The temperate continental climate has some submediteranean characteristics as well of the Adriatic climate.

Climatic general features consist of various and irregular weather conditions. The dominating temperate air masses during spring and summer are of oceanic origin and come with great precipitations. Frequently, even during winter period, the Atlantic humid air masses bring rainy and snowy weather, rarely cold weather.

From September until February, frequent continental polar air masses coming from East invade the area. In spite of all that, the Banat climate is also influenced by the presence of cyclones and warm air masses which come from the Adriatic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Their characteristic feature is that of complete snow thaw during the winter period and stifling heat during the summer period.

Neighborhoods

Listed alphabetically
  • Aradului vest
  • Badea Cârțan
  • Banat I
  • Blașcovici
  • Braytim
  • Bucovina
  • Calea Aradului
  • Calea Girocului
  • Calea Lipovei
  • Calea Șagului
  • Cetate
  • Chișoda
  • Ciarda Roșie
  • Circumvalațiunii I, II, III, IV
  • Complex studențesc
  • Complex
  • Crisan
  • Dacia
  • Dâmbovița
  • Elisabetin
  • Fabric
  • Fratelia
  • Freidorf
  • Ghiroda
  • Ion Ionescu de la Brad
  • Iosefin
  • Kuncz
  • Lunei
  • Matei Basarab
  • Mehala I, II
  • Mircea cel Batran
  • Modern
  • Noua Timișoară
  • Olimpia
  • Padurea Verde
  • Plăvăț
  • Plopi
  • Ronaț
  • Soarelui
  • Stadion
  • Tipografilor
  • Torontalului
  • Traian
  • Zona Odobescu

Culture

The city center largely consists of buildings from the Austro-Hungarian era. The old city consists of several historic areas. These are: Cetate (Belváros in Hungarian, Innere Stadt in German), Iosefin (Józsefváros, Josephstadt), Elisabetin (Erzsébetváros, Elisabethstadt), Fabric (Gyárváros, Fabrikstadt). Numerous bars, clubs and restaurants have opened in the old Baroque square (Unirii Square).

Landmarks include:

  • Timișoara Orthodox Cathedral
  • St. George’s Cathedral (The Dome)
  • Millennium Church
  • Huniade Castle

Performing Arts

  • Banatul Philharmonic of Timișoara (Filarmonica Banatul Timoșoara)
  • Romanian Opera House (Opera Romana Timișoara)
  • National Theatre (Teatrul Național)
  • German State Theatre (Teatrul German de Stat)
  • Hungarian State Theatre (Teatrul Maghiar de Stat)
  • Puppet Theatre (Teatrul pentru copii si tineret “Merlin”)
  • Festivalul Plai, a world music and jazz festival

Festivals and Conferences

  • StudentFest, a festival of culture and arts created by the students
  • ISWinT – The International Students Week in Timișoara
  • TEDxTimișoara, an independent conference organized under license from TED Conference

Education

Timișoara has four public universities and three private universities:

Public

  • West University
  • Polytechnic University
  • “Victor Babeș” University of Medicine and Pharmacy
  • Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences

Private

  • Dimitrie Cantemir University
  • Tibiscus University
  • Mihai Eminescu University

Association Football

  • FC Politehnica Timișoara
  • CFR Timișoara

Historic

  • Chinezul Timișoara - 6 titles
  • Ripensia Timișoara - 4 titles
  • UM Timișoara

Basketball

  • BC Elba Timișoara (M)
  • CSȘ Bega Timișoara (W)

Twin Towns — Sister Cities

Timișoara has 15 twin towns and sister cities, as listed below:

  • China Shenzhen, China
  • France Mulhouse, France
  • France Rueil-Malmaison, France
  • Germany Gera, Germany
  • Germany Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Hungary Szeged, Hungary
  • Italy Faenza, Italy
  • Italy Palermo, Italy
  • Italy Sassari, Italy
  • Italy Treviso, Italy
  • Mexico Cancún, Mexico
  • Serbia Novi Sad, Serbia
  • Serbia Zrenjanin, Serbia
  • United Kingdom Nottingham, United Kingdom
  • Peru Trujillo, Peru

Natives

  • Iolanda Balaș — athlete; two time Olympic champion in the women’s high jump
  • Mircea Baniciu — musician and composer, Transsylvania Phoenix and Pasărea Colibri
  • Ana Blandiana — poet, essayist, and political figure
  • Horia Colibășanu — the first Romanian mountain climber to reach the summit of K2, Manaslu, Dhaulagiri and Annapurna
  • Cosmin Contra — footballer, voted 2 times in 1999 and 2001 the best right defender in the UEFA Team of the Year
  • Hanno Höfer — German-Romanian movie director, producer and musician
  • Ioan Holender —Romanian-born Austrian director of Vienna State Opera
  • Hugo Jan Huss — orchestra conductor and music director
  • Francesco Illy — inventor of the first automatic coffee machine and founder of Illycaffè
  • Ion Ivanovici — military band leader and composer, best remembered today for his waltz “Waves of the Danube”
  • George Lusztig — Romanian American mathematician and professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
  • Zoltán Meskó — a Romanian-born American football punter for the New England Patriots
  • Dan Nicolae Potra — artistic gymnast; Romania’s first male gymnast to win the European all around title (2002)
  • Andrei Silard — engineer and author, correspondent member of the Romanian Academy
  • Cornel Trăilescu — opera composer and conductor
  • Dorin Tudoran — poet, essayist, journalist, and dissident
  • Andrei Ujica — screenwriter and director
  • Timotei Ursu — film director, television director, writer and journalist
  • Johnny Weissmuller — Romanian born American swimmer and actor of German descent, famous for winning 5 Olympic gold medals for the United States and for portraying Tarzan in films
  • Sandra Romain — Famous pornographic actress.

Gallery

  • Timisoara was the 1st town in Europe and 2nd in the world after New York City with streets illuminated by electric lights

  • Victory Square

  • Lloyd Palace

  • Hotel Continental, the tallest hotel in the city

  • Mid-day

  • Evening rush hour

  • Orthodox Cathedral

  • St. George’s Cathedral

  • Millennium Church

  • Huniade Castle

  • West University

  • “Victor Babeș” University of Medicine and Pharmacy

  • Polytechnic University

  • Polytechnic University’s sports ground

  • City bus in Timișoara, route 33

  • Tram in Timișoara

  • Iulius Mall Timișoara

  • Spring in Timișoara, Bega canal

  • Winter in Timișoara, Bega canal